Device Driver

I/O Devices
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I/O Devices

The CPU and memory are not the only resources that the operating system must deal with. I/O devices also interact heavily with the operating system. As we saw in COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW figure, I/O devices are normally made of two parts: a controller and

Input/Output
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Input/Output

All computers have physical devices for obtaining input and generating output. After all, what good would a computer be if the users could not tell it what to do and could not get the

Microkernels
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Microkernels

By means of the layered technique, the designers have an option where to draw the kernel-user boundary. Usually, all the layers went in the kernel, but that is not necessary. In reality, a strong case can be made for putting as little as possible in kernel mode because

Device Drivers
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Device Drivers

Earlier in this section we examined what device controllers do. We saw that each controller has some device registers used to give it commands or some device registers used to read out its status or both. The number of device registers and the nature of the commands vary

Device-Independent I/O Software
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Device-Independent I/O Software

Though some of the I/O software is device specific, other parts of it are device independent. The exact boundary between the drivers and the device-independent software is system (and device) dependent, because some functions that could be done in a device-independent way

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