Operating System

Buses
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Buses

The organization of "COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW" figure was used on minicomputers for years and also on the original IBM PC. Though, as processors and memories got faster, the ability of a single bus (and certainly the IBM PC bus) to handle all the traffic was constrained

Booting the Computer
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Booting the Computer

Very shortly, the Pentium boot process is as follows. Every Pentium includes a parentboard (previously called a motherboard before political correctness hit the computer industry). On the parentboard is a program called the system BIOS (Basic Input Output System). The

Handheld Computer Operating Systems
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Handheld Computer Operating Systems

Continuing on down to smaller and smaller systems, we come to handheld computers. A handheld computer or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) is a small computer that fits in a shirt

Real-Time Operating Systems
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Real-Time Operating Systems

Another kind of operating systems is the real-time system. These systems are characterized by having time as a key parameter. For instance, in industrial process control systems,

Header Files
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Header Files

An operating system project usually includes some number of directories, each containing many .c files containing the code for some part of the system, along with some .h header

Large Programming Projects
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Large Programming Projects

In order to build the operating system, each .c is compiled into an object file by the C compiler. Object files, which have the suffix .o, contain binary instructions for the target

Process States
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Process States

Although each process is an independent entity, with its own program counter and internal state, processes sometimes have to interact with other processes. One process may produce some output that another process uses as input. In the shell command

RESEARCH ON PROCESSES AND THREADS
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RESEARCH ON PROCESSES AND THREADS

In INTRODUCTION, we examined some of the current research in operating system structure. In this and subsequent sections we will consider more narrowly focused research, starting with processes. As will become clear in time, some subjects are much more settled than

PAGE REPLACEMENT ALGORITHMS
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PAGE REPLACEMENT ALGORITHMS

When a page fault takes place, the operating system has to choose a page to remove (remove from memory) to make room for the incoming page. If the page to be removed has been customized while in memory, it must be rewritten to the disk to bring the disk copy up to date. If,

The Not Recently Used Page Replacement Algorithm
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The Not Recently Used Page Replacement Algorithm

In order to allow the operating system to collect useful page usage statistics, most computers with virtual memory have two status bits associated with each page. R is set whenever the page is referenced (read or written). M is set when the page is written to (i.e., modified).

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