Operating System

Introduction To Operating System
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Introduction To Operating System

A present computer comprises one or more processors, some main memory, disks, printers, a keyboard, a mouse, a display, network interfaces, and several other input/output devices. All in all, a complex system. If every application programmer had to understand how all

WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?
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WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?

It is difficult to understand exactly what an operating system is other than saying it is the software that runs in kernel mode and even that is not always true. Part of the problem is

The Operating System as an Extended Machine
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The Operating System as an Extended Machine

The architecture (instruction set, memory organization, I/0, and bus structure) of most computers at the machine language level is primitive and awkward to program, particularly for input/output. To make this point more solid, think how floppy disk I/0 is done using the

The Operating System as a Resource Manager
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The Operating System as a Resource Manager

The idea of an operating system as primarily providing abstractions to application programs is a top-down view. An alternative, bottom-up, view holds that the operating system is there to manage all the pieces of a complicated system. Present computers contain processors,

HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
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HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

Operating systems have been developing through the years. In the following sections we will in brief look at a few of the highlights. Since operating systems have historically been closely tied to the architecture of the computers on which they run, we will look at consecutive

The First Generation (1945-55) Vacuum Tubes
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The First Generation (1945-55) Vacuum Tubes

After Babbage's fruitless efforts, little progress was made in constructing digital computers until World War II, which motivated an explosion of activity. Prof. John Atanasoff and his graduate student Clifford Berry built what is now regarded as the first functioning digital

The Second Generation (1955-65) Transistors and Batch Systems
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The Second Generation (1955-65) Transistors and Batch Systems

The introduction of the transistor in the mid-1 950s changed the picture drastically. Computers became reliable enough that they could be manufactured and sold to paying customers with the hope that they would continue to function long enough to get some

The Third Generation (1965-1980) ICs and Multiprogramming
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The Third Generation (1965-1980) ICs and Multiprogramming

By the early 1960s, the majority of computer manufacturers had two different, incompatible, product lines. On the one hand there were the word-oriented, large-scale scientific computers, such as the 7094, which were used for numerical calculations in science and

The Fourth Generation (1980-Present) Personal Computers
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The Fourth Generation (1980-Present) Personal Computers

With the growth of LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuits, chips containing thousands of transistors on a square centimeter of silicon, the age of the personal computer dawned. With regard to architecture, personal computers (in the beginning called microcomputers) were

COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW
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COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW

An operating system is closely attached to the hardware of the computer it runs on. It expands the computer's instruction set and controls its resources. To work, it must know a great deal about the hardware, at least about how the hardware appears to the programmer.

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