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Shared Files
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Shared Files

When various users are working together on a project, they often need to share files. As a result, it is often convenient for a shared file to appear simultaneously in different directories belonging to different users. Figure 1 shows the file system of DIRECTORIES Figure 2, again,

Virtual File Systems
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Virtual File Systems

Several different file systems are in use - often on the same computer - even for the same operating system. A Windows system may have a main NTFS file system, but also a legacy FAT-32 or FAT-16 drive or partition that includes old, but still needed, data and occasionally a

File System Consistency
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File System Consistency

Another area where reliability is an issue is file system consistency. Many file systems read blocks, modify them, and write them out later. If the system crashes before all the modified blocks have been written out, the file system can be left in an inconsistent state. This problem is

File System Performance
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File System Performance

Access to disk is much slower than access to memory. Reading a 32-bit memory word might take 10 nsec. Reading from a hard disk might proceed at 100 MB/sec, which is four times slower per 32-bit word, but to this must be added 5-10 msec to seek to the track and then wait for

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