Memory

The Operating System as an Extended Machine
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The Operating System as an Extended Machine

The architecture (instruction set, memory organization, I/0, and bus structure) of most computers at the machine language level is primitive and awkward to program, particularly for input/output. To make this point more solid, think how floppy disk I/0 is done using the

COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW
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COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW

An operating system is closely attached to the hardware of the computer it runs on. It expands the computer's instruction set and controls its resources. To work, it must know a great deal about the hardware, at least about how the hardware appears to the programmer.

Processors
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Processors

The "brain" of the computer is the CPU. It brings instructions from memory and carries out them. The fundamental cycle of every CPU is to bring the first instruction from memory, interpret it to decide its type and operands, execute it, and then bring, decode, and carry out

Multithreaded and Multicore Chips
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Multithreaded and Multicore Chips

According to Moore's law, the number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months. This "law" is not like any law of physics, like conservation of momentum, but is an observation by Intel cofounder Gordon Moore of how fast process engineers at the semiconductor companies

Tapes
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Tapes

The last layer in the memory hierarchy is magnetic tape. This medium is frequently used as a backup for disk storage and for holding very large data sets. To access a tape, it must first be put into a tape reader, either by a person or a robot (automated tape handling is

Buses
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Buses

The organization of "COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW" figure was used on minicomputers for years and also on the original IBM PC. Though, as processors and memories got faster, the ability of a single bus (and certainly the IBM PC bus) to handle all the traffic was constrained

Smart Card Operating Systems
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Smart Card Operating Systems

The smallest operating systems run on smart cards, which are credit cardsized devices containing a CPU chip. They have very severe processing power and memory limitations.

Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
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Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny

After Charles Darwin's book on the origin of the species was published, the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel stated that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". By this he meant that the

System Calls for Process Management
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System Calls for Process Management

The first group of calls in figure (a). deals with process management. Fork is a good place to start the discussion. Fork is the only way to create a new process in POSIX. It produces an exact duplicate of the

THE WORLD ACCORDING TO C
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THE WORLD ACCORDING TO C

Operating systems are generally large C (or sometimes C++) programs consisting of many pieces written by many programmers. The environment used for developing operating systems is very different from what individuals (such as students) are used to when writing

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