Physical Memory

A MEMORY ABSTRACTION: ADDRESS SPACES
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A MEMORY ABSTRACTION: ADDRESS SPACES

On the whole, exposing physical memory to processes has many major drawbacks. First, if user programs can address every byte of memory, they can easily trash the operating system, intentionally or by accident, bringing the system to a grinding halt (unless there is

Swapping
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Swapping

If the physical memory of the computer is large enough to hold all the processes, the schemes explained so far will more or less do. But in practice, the total amount of RAM required by all the processes is often much more than can fit in memory. On a typical Windows or Linux

Page Tables
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Page Tables

In a simple execution, the mapping of virtual addresses onto physical addresses can be summarized as follows: the virtual address is split into a virtual page number (high-order bits) and an offset (low-order bits). For instance, with a 16-bit address and a 4-KB page size, the

file-systems
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file-systems

All computer applications need to store and get back information. While a process is running, it can store a limited amount of information within its own address space. On the other hand, the storage capacity is restricted to the size of the virtual address space. For some

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