Mainframes

The Second Generation (1955-65) Transistors and Batch Systems
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The Second Generation (1955-65) Transistors and Batch Systems

The introduction of the transistor in the mid-1 950s changed the picture drastically. Computers became reliable enough that they could be manufactured and sold to paying customers with the hope that they would continue to function long enough to get some

Large Memories
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Large Memories

Let us now study some historical developments in hardware and how they have affected software over and over again. The first mainframes had limited memory. A fully loaded IBM

Hard Disks
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Hard Disks

Initial mainframes were mostly magnetic-tape based. They would read in a program from tape, compile it, run it, and write the results back to another tape. There were no disks and

Virtual Memory
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Virtual Memory

Virtual memory (discussed in "MEMORY MANAGEMENT"), gives the ability to run programs larger than the machine's physical memory by moving pieces back and forth between RAM

Client-Server Model / Virtual Machines
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Client-Server Model / Virtual Machines

A small variation of the microkernel idea is to differentiate two classes of processes, the servers, each of which gives some service, and the clients, which use these services. This model is known as the client-server model. Sometimes the lowest layer is a microkernel, but

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