Software

WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?
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WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?

It is difficult to understand exactly what an operating system is other than saying it is the software that runs in kernel mode and even that is not always true. Part of the problem is

The Operating System as an Extended Machine
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The Operating System as an Extended Machine

The architecture (instruction set, memory organization, I/0, and bus structure) of most computers at the machine language level is primitive and awkward to program, particularly for input/output. To make this point more solid, think how floppy disk I/0 is done using the

HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
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HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS

Operating systems have been developing through the years. In the following sections we will in brief look at a few of the highlights. Since operating systems have historically been closely tied to the architecture of the computers on which they run, we will look at consecutive

The Fourth Generation (1980-Present) Personal Computers
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The Fourth Generation (1980-Present) Personal Computers

With the growth of LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuits, chips containing thousands of transistors on a square centimeter of silicon, the age of the personal computer dawned. With regard to architecture, personal computers (in the beginning called microcomputers) were

Handheld Computer Operating Systems
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Handheld Computer Operating Systems

Continuing on down to smaller and smaller systems, we come to handheld computers. A handheld computer or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) is a small computer that fits in a shirt

Real-Time Operating Systems
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Real-Time Operating Systems

Another kind of operating systems is the real-time system. These systems are characterized by having time as a key parameter. For instance, in industrial process control systems,

Input/Output
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Input/Output

All computers have physical devices for obtaining input and generating output. After all, what good would a computer be if the users could not tell it what to do and could not get the

Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
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Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny

After Charles Darwin's book on the origin of the species was published, the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel stated that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". By this he meant that the

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