File System

file-systems
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file-systems

All computer applications need to store and get back information. While a process is running, it can store a limited amount of information within its own address space. On the other hand, the storage capacity is restricted to the size of the virtual address space. For some

DIRECTORIES
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DIRECTORIES

To keep track of files, file systems generally have directories or folders, which in many systems are themselves files. Now we will discuss directories, their organization, their properties, and the operations that can be performed on them.

FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
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FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

Now it is time to turn from the user's view of the file system to the implementor's view. Users are concerned with how files are named, what operations are allowed on them, what the directory tree looks like, and similar interface issues. Implementors are interested in how files and

Implementing Directories
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Implementing Directories

Before a file can be read, it must be opened. When a file is opened, the operating system uses the path name supplied by the user to locate the directory entry. The directory entry provides the information required to find the disk blocks. Depending on the system, this information

File System Backups
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File System Backups

Destruction of a file system is sometimes a far greater tragedy than destruction of a computer. If a computer is destroyed by fire, lightning surges, or a cup of coffee poured onto the keyboard, it is annoying and will cost money, but usually a replacement can be purchased with a

File System Consistency
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File System Consistency

Another area where reliability is an issue is file system consistency. Many file systems read blocks, modify them, and write them out later. If the system crashes before all the modified blocks have been written out, the file system can be left in an inconsistent state. This problem is

Defragmenting Disks
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Defragmenting Disks

When the operating system is at first installed, the programs and files it requires are installed consecutively starting at the beginning of the disk, each one directly following the previous one. All free disk space is in a single contiguous unit following the installed files. On the other

EXAMPLE FILE SYSTEMS
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EXAMPLE FILE SYSTEMS

In the next sections we will discuss numerous example file systems, ranging from quite simple to more sophisticated. Since modern UNIX file systems and Windows Vista's native file system are covered in "UNIX" and "Windows Vista" we will not cover those systems here. We will,

Error Handling
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Error Handling

Disk manufacturers are constantly pushing the limits of the technology by increasing linear bit densities. A track midway out on a 5.25-inch disk has a circumference of about 300 mm. If the track holds 300 sectors of 512 bytes, the linear recording density may be about 5000

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