Root Directory

DIRECTORIES
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DIRECTORIES

To keep track of files, file systems generally have directories or folders, which in many systems are themselves files. Now we will discuss directories, their organization, their properties, and the operations that can be performed on them.

File System Consistency
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File System Consistency

Another area where reliability is an issue is file system consistency. Many file systems read blocks, modify them, and write them out later. If the system crashes before all the modified blocks have been written out, the file system can be left in an inconsistent state. This problem is

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