PROCESSES AND THREADS

RESEARCH ON PROCESSES AND THREADS
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RESEARCH ON PROCESSES AND THREADS

In INTRODUCTION, we examined some of the current research in operating system structure. In this and subsequent sections we will consider more narrowly focused research, starting with processes. As will become clear in time, some subjects are much more settled than

The Readers and Writers Problem
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The Readers and Writers Problem

The dining philosophers problem is useful for modeling processes that are competing for exclusive access to a limited number of resources, such as I/O devices. Another well-known problem is the readers and writers problem (Courtois et al., 1971), which models access to a

CLASSICAL IPC PROBLEMS
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CLASSICAL IPC PROBLEMS

The operating systems literature is full of interesting problems that have been extensively discussed and analyzed using a variety of synchronization methods. In the following sections we will look at three of the better-known problems.

Thread Scheduling
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Thread Scheduling

When many processes each have multiple threads, we have two levels of parallelism present: processes and threads. Scheduling in such systems differs considerably depending on whether user-level threads or kernel-level threads (or both) are supported.

Scheduling in Real-Time Systems
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Scheduling in Real-Time Systems

A real-time system is one in which time plays an important role. Normally, one or more physical devices external to the computer produce stimuli, and the computer must react properly to them within a fixed amount of time. For instance, the computer in a compact disc player gets

Shortest Process Next
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Shortest Process Next

Because shortest job first always creates the minimum average response time for batch systems, it would be nice if it could be used for interactive processes as well. To a certain extent, it can be. Interactive processes usually follow the pattern of wait for command, execute

Scheduling in Interactive Systems
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Scheduling in Interactive Systems

We will now study some algorithms that can be used in interactive systems. These are common on personal computers, servers, and other kinds of systems as well.

Scheduling in Batch Systems
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Scheduling in Batch Systems

It is now time to turn from general scheduling issues to specific scheduling algorithms. In this section we will study algorithms used in batch systems. In the following ones we will study interactive and real-time systems. It is worth pointing out that some algorithms are used in both

Scheduling Algorithm Goals
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Scheduling Algorithm Goals

To design a scheduling algorithm, it is essential to have some idea of what a good algorithm should do. Some goals depend on the environment (batch, interactive, or real time), but there are also some that are suitable in all cases. Some goals are listed in Figure

When to Schedule
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When to Schedule

A major issue related to scheduling is when to make scheduling decisions. It turns out that there are a variety of situations in which scheduling is required. First, when a new process is created, a decision needs to be made whether to run the parent process or the child

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