INTRODUCTION

Handheld Computer Operating Systems
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Handheld Computer Operating Systems

Continuing on down to smaller and smaller systems, we come to handheld computers. A handheld computer or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) is a small computer that fits in a shirt

Sensor Node Operating Systems
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Sensor Node Operating Systems

Networks of tiny sensor nodes are being used effectively for various purposes. These nodes are tiny computers that communicate with each other and with a base station using wireless

Real-Time Operating Systems
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Real-Time Operating Systems

Another kind of operating systems is the real-time system. These systems are characterized by having time as a key parameter. For instance, in industrial process control systems,

Smart Card Operating Systems
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Smart Card Operating Systems

The smallest operating systems run on smart cards, which are credit cardsized devices containing a CPU chip. They have very severe processing power and memory limitations.

OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS - PROCESSES
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OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS - PROCESSES

The majority of operating systems provide certain essential concepts and abstractions such as processes, address spaces, and files that are most important to understanding them. In

Address Spaces
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Address Spaces

Every computer has some main memory that it uses to hold executing programs. In a very simple operating system, only one program at a time is in memory. To run a second program, the first o

Files
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Files

Another key concept supported by virtually all operating systems is the file system. As noted before, the most important function of the operating system is to hide the peculiarities of the

Input/Output
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Input/Output

All computers have physical devices for obtaining input and generating output. After all, what good would a computer be if the users could not tell it what to do and could not get the

Protection
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Protection

Almost all computers contain great amounts of information that users often want to protect and keep confidential. This information may include e-mail, business plans, tax returns, and

The Shell
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The Shell

The operating system is the code that carries out the system calls. Editors, compilers, assemblers, linkers, and command interpreters certainly are not part of the operating system, even though they

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